I copied the op-amp in Fig. 24.44 but using a 130 nm process. I get a gain margin of 7 dB and a phase margin of 54 degrees using Cc = 250 fF
and Cload = 1 pF. My problem is I use Fig. 24.39 as a test bench but my output is oscillating. I donít understand why. Would you please shed
some light on whatís going on? Images of my design and simulation results are seen below (click for a larger image).
Looks to me like your phase margin is around 30 degrees, not 54 degrees. This is way too low. Also, you are using 500 mV for the common-mode
voltage. While this is the right value, VDD/2, for the op-amp in Fig. 24.44 since itís designed in a 50 nm process, I doubt that itís correct for a
130 nm process. This could lead to the input diff-pair shutting off and instability.
The phase margin seen in Fig. 24.45 is about 50 degrees, below.
So, how do we increase the phase margin and make the op-amp more stable (and stop the oscillations)? Of course if we could reduce the load that would make the design
more stable but this usually isnít an option.
The answer is that we either increase the compensation capacitorís value, Cc, which lowers the unity-gain frequency, fun, or we push the pole associated with the output, f2, out by increasing the
transconductance, gm2, of the output stage, see Eq. (24.24). Since we generally donít want to slow down the op-amp letís push out f2. Increasing the widths of MON and MOP in Fig. 24.44 by
a factor of 10 gives the following results. The unity-gain frequency remains 100 MHz and the phase margin improves to roughly 90 degrees. Note that we increase gm2 by increasing the current
in the output stage (we donít change the overdrive voltages of MOP and MON). See comments here for additional information.