How
do you calculate the channel-length
modulation parameter, λ, for
a 180
nm process?

You
can get an estimate for λ
and *r _{o}* as
discussed on
page 298; however, note that if

varies
so will these values (perhaps
drastically).

Also
note that you can’t use the square
law equations (and thus λ) to
model
nanometer CMOS

as
discussed in the book.